Python Dataframe Trim Columns

You need to iterate over the values in the column, not try to convert the whole column array to integer value, with "%d" % df['column_name']. Append Spark Dataframe with a new Column by UDF To change the schema of a data frame, we can operate on its RDD, then apply a new schema. A dataframe is basically a 2d numpy array with rows and columns, that also has labels for columns and rows. loc [] method,. 7 series, we cover the notion of column manipulation with CSV files. how to rename the specific column of our choice by column index. In R, there are multiple ways to select or drop column. Number format column with pandas. The dictionary is in the run_info column. It is easy to visualize and work with data when stored in dataFrame. replace() function in pandas – replace a string in dataframe python In this tutorial we will learn how to replace a string or substring in a column of a dataframe in python pandas with an alternative string. While performing any data analysis task you often need to remove certain columns or entire rows which are not relevant. withColumn cannot be used. SERIES를 이용해서 생성 43 44. Column A column expression in a DataFrame. In both, a row represents a record and a column represents a variable. Python Pandas : How to Drop rows in DataFrame by conditions on column values; Pandas : How to create an empty DataFrame and append rows & columns to it in python; Pandas : Sort a DataFrame based on column names or row index labels using Dataframe. columns[0:2]]. Data usually does not come all tidy like we want it. Starting from version 1. A panel is a 3D container of data. The sort_values() function does not modify the actual DataFrame, but returns the sorted DataFrame. A dataframe is basically a 2d numpy array with rows and columns, that also has labels for columns and rows. Change column name in python dataframe keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Python Pandas - DataFrame - A Data frame is a two-dimensional data structure, i. simple utility function for adding a level to columns in a dataframe (self. How to Writing DataFrame to CSV file in Pandas? How to Import CSV to pandas with specific Index? Find the index position where the minimum and maximum value exist in Pandas DataFrame; How to count number of rows per group in pandas group by? Add a new row to a Pandas DataFrame with specific index name; Pandas Sort Columns in descending order. The Python Pandas data frame consists of the main three principal components, namely the data, index and the columns. read_csv function. Using Pandas¶. A Pandas DataFrame is essentially a 2-dimensional row-and-column data structure for Python. Row A row of data in a DataFrame. When it comes to data management in Python, you have to begin by creating a data frame. Distributing Python Modules publishing modules for installation by others. The syntax to assign new dataframe. Yes, you can add a new column in a specified position into a dataframe, by specifying an index and using the insert() function. Pandas DataFrame Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Pandas program to select all columns, except one given column in a DataFrame. This will create a new series/column in the dataframe and you can see the result below: 0 IndiaSamsung 1 IndiaSamsung 2 USASamsung As you can see we are using the dot notation to get information from the new column. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. 25 [Python-Pandas] DataFrame 의 특정 column 만 이름 변경하기 (0) 2018. DataFrame, pandas. I want to get a list of the column headers from a pandas DataFrame. So let’s learn how to remove columns or rows using pandas drop function. It returns an object. I have a dataframe with 'ProductID'and 'Balance' columns. slice function is used to get the substring of the column in pandas dataframe python. DataFrame({"A": [10,20,30], "B":. csv', index_col = 'Date', parse_dates=True) So far, typical Pandas code, except we're importing the random module. The ‘_m’ suffix indicates the column came from the original dataframe (org_df), while the ‘_n’ indicates the column came from the new data frame (new_data_df). By default splitting is done on the basis of single space by str. columns: if (yourValue in df[cols]: print('Found in. It’s also possible to use R base functions, but they require more typing. I want to able to do this for all the columns without having to repeat the code many times. sort_index() Python Pandas : How to add new columns in a dataFrame using [] or dataframe. Dictionary to DataFrame (1) Pandas is an open source library, providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for Python. But If I take your question literally, then , "You want to slice few Characters from each item of a Given Column" Then, using a simple function should help you. Replace NaN back to 0 with. I want to import a csv file into a pandas dataframe. You don't have to implement these yourself; the principal methods for doing this are. In this tutorial, you will learn how to select or subset data frame columns by names and position using the R function select() and pull() [in dplyr package]. How to Add a New Column to a Pandas Dataframe Object in Python In this article, we show how to add a new column to a pandas dataframe object in Python. join or concatenate string in pandas python - Join() function is used to join or concatenate two or more strings in pandas python with the specified separator. Split a list of values into columns of a dataframe? expandedLabels = pandas. It is composed of rows and columns. Spark DataFrame UDFs: Examples using Scala and Python Last updated: 11 Nov 2015 WIP Alert This is a work in progress. [Python-Pandas] DataFrame 전체 Column 이름, 소문자로 변경 및 공백을 밑줄로 변경 (0) 2018. Try my machine learning flashcards or Machine Learning with Python Cookbook. Exploring and Transforming H2O DataFrame in R and Python you might have to trim your DataFrame to fewer features in order to have an effective You don't have any columns in your data frame. Row A row of data in a DataFrame. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Let us say we want to filter the data frame such that we get a smaller data frame with “year” values equal to 2002. 65513944114847 1 300 POLYGON ((-122. To sort DataFrame by a column, use sort_values() function with the by=column_name argument. columns: if (yourValue in df[cols]: print('Found in. append() & loc[] , iloc[] Python Pandas : Count NaN or missing values in DataFrame ( also row & column wise) Python Pandas : Drop columns in DataFrame by label Names or by Index Positions. first (self, offset) Convenience method for subsetting initial periods of time series data based on a date offset. DataFrame() to construct a DataFrame of tweet texts and languages; to do so, the first argument should be tweets_data, a list of dictionaries. However, ids appear multiple times. Substring of column in pandas python: Substring of column in pandas data frames can be achieved by using str. loc¶ DataFrame. How we can handle missing data in a pandas DataFrame? Add a new row to a Pandas DataFrame with specific index name; How to get a list of the column headers from a Pandas DataFrame? Remove duplicate rows from Pandas DataFrame where only some columns have the same value; Pandas set Index on multiple columns; Pandas Sort Index Values in descending. Based on 3 of those columns I want to delete certain rows. A panel is a 3D container of data. replace() Use. In R, there are multiple ways to select or drop column. Notice: Values cannot be types like dicts or lists , because their dtypes is object.  We can get the ndarray of column names from this Index object i. Python Pandas : Drop columns in DataFrame by label Names or by Index Positions; Python Pandas : How to add rows in a DataFrame using dataframe. To add a new column to the existing Pandas DataFrame, assign the new column values to the dataframe indexed using the new column name. So if you have an existing pandas dataframe object, you are free to do many different modifications, including adding columns or rows to the dataframe object, deleting columns or rows, updating. Country Company). If you want to search single value in whole dataframe [code]yourValue = randomNumber for cols in df. Similar is the data frame in Python, which is labeled as two-dimensional data structures having different types of columns. Of course, I can convert these columns into lists and use your solution but I am looking for an elegant way of doing this. This is not recommended as it is inefficient compared to using numexpr as the engine. plot(), or DataFrame. Column A column expression in a DataFrame. This short article shows how you can read in all the tabs in an Excel workbook and combine them into a single pandas dataframe using one command. columns = new_columns. The ‘_m’ suffix indicates the column came from the original dataframe (org_df), while the ‘_n’ indicates the column came from the new data frame (new_data_df). We will show in this article how you can delete a row from a pandas dataframe object in Python. Add New Column to Pandas DataFrame using …. Index ProductID Balance 1 10 100 2 20 0 3 30 200 4 20 150 5 20 240 6 40 100 7 30 200. To change or rename the column labels of a DataFrame in pandas, just assign the new column labels to the dataframe using dot operator. The syntax of DataFrame() class is: DataFrame(data=None, index=None, columns=None, dtype=None, copy=False). Data frames in Python are very similar: they come with the Pandas library, and they are defined as a two-dimensional labeled data structures with columns of potentially different types. Renaming columns in a data frame Problem. df1 has 50000 rows and df2 has 150000 rows. 5 3 3 James no NaN 4 2 Emily no 9. Spark DataFrame expand on a lot of these concepts, allowing you to transfer that knowledge easily by understanding the simple syntax of Spark DataFrames. DataFrame({"A": [10,20,30], "B":. split() functions. Accessing pandas dataframe columns, rows, and cells At this point you know how to load CSV data in Python. Split Name column into two different columns. columns] = df_obj. I want to import a csv file into a pandas dataframe. There are 2 category columns “Color” and “Size”, many algorithms can’t work with category valuables, so we have to convert them to numeric. Tabular data has rows and columns, just like our csv file. The syntax of DataFrame() class is: DataFrame(data=None, index=None, columns=None, dtype=None, copy=False). Convert to number to float, int, and string in Python; Concatenate two arrays (lists) in Python; Get row and column count for Pandas dataframe; Iterating over rows in Pandas dataframe; Change the order of columns in Pandas dataframe; Break a long line into multiple lines in Python; Replace all NaN values with 0's in a column of Pandas dataframe. Pandas Cheat Sheet for Data Science in Python A quick guide to the basics of the Python data analysis library Pandas, including code samples. Previous: Python Pandas Data Series, DataFrame Exercises Home. python pandas 에서 특정 컬럼값의 row 를 제거하기 | Deleting DataFrame row in Pandas based on column value JASON 2017. loc [ : ], there isn’t any row slicing. When it comes to data management in Python, you have to begin by creating a data frame. Now delete the new row and return the original DataFrame. Number format column with pandas. In general, you could say that the Pandas data frame consists of three main components: the data, the index, and the columns. 26 [Python-Pandas] DataFrame 전체 Column 이름, 소문자로 변경 및 공백을 밑줄로 변경 (0) 2018. Below a picture of a Pandas data frame: What is a Series?. DataFrame({"A": [10,20,30], "B":. NEW Introducing Helix— the first instant, responsive data engine. Indexing, Slicing and Subsetting DataFrames in Python In lesson 01, we read a CSV into a python Pandas DataFrame. I tried to look at pandas documentation but did not immediately find the answer. frame structure in R, you have some way to work with them at a faster processing speed in Python. The ways :- 1. But, you can set a column as index, if you like. Each row was assigned an index of 0 to N-1, where N is the number of rows in the DataFrame. I need to strip whitespace from all the stringlike cells, leaving the other cells unchanged in Python 2. However, ids appear multiple times. 0 2 2 Katherine yes 16. Once you have data in Python, you'll want to see the data has loaded, and confirm that the expected columns and rows are present. In simple words I have dataframe with geo coordinates -- latitude & longitude as two columns. Your goal is to concatenate the column values in Python as follows: Day-Month-Year. not a csv, you can use the 'parse_cols' parameter when using read_excel to determine the columns being read into a dataframe. One way way is to use a dictionary. Let's try with an example: Create a dataframe:. But If I take your question literally, then , "You want to slice few Characters from each item of a Given Column" Then, using a simple function should help you. to_dict() Saving a DataFrame to a Python string string = df. The code is as follows: df1 = pd. Here I have taken CSV file of airbnb hosts. It is composed of rows and columns. By default splitting is done on the basis of single space by str. Lets go ahead and create a DataFrame by passing a NumPy array with datetime as indexes and labeled columns:. Print the data. The following are code examples for showing how to use pandas. It returns an object. Posted on April 11, 2017 Data Analysis, H2O, Java, Machine Learning, Python, Python Renaming data frame column names in H2O (python) Sometimes you may need to change the all the column names or a specific column due to certain need, and you can do as below:. The ways :- 1. The names for the 3 axes are intended to give some semantic meaning to describing operations involving panel data. Rename column headers in pandas. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. So let’s learn how to remove columns or rows using pandas drop function. Previous: Python Pandas Data Series, DataFrame Exercises Home. Picking specific columns. A dataframe object is an object made up of a number of series objects. Quick Start. The '_m' suffix indicates the column came from the original dataframe (org_df), while the '_n' indicates the column came from the new data frame (new_data_df). Pandas Tutorial : How to split columns of dataframe https://blog. In R, there are multiple ways to select or drop column. You can also save this page to your account. The iterable returned from a DataFrame has always been the columns so doing for col in df: should always behave the same unless the developers have a meltdown so list(df) is and should still be a valid method. Convert to number to float, int, and string in Python; Concatenate two arrays (lists) in Python; Get row and column count for Pandas dataframe; Iterating over rows in Pandas dataframe; Change the order of columns in Pandas dataframe; Break a long line into multiple lines in Python; Replace all NaN values with 0's in a column of Pandas dataframe. I am trying to get the spaces between name out and replace it with "_" wherever present. For example, one of the columns in your data frame is full name and you may want to split into first name and last name (like the figure shown below). The dictionary is in the run_info column. How to Sort DataFrame by Column in Pandas? – 2 Python Examples. Other data structures, like DataFrame and Panel, follow the dict-like convention of iterating over the keys of the objects. GroupedData Aggregation methods, returned by DataFrame. At times, you may not want to return the. Here is what I'm doing: def remove_whitespace(. Remember index_col, an argument of read_csv(), that you can use to specify which column in the CSV file should be used as a row label? Well, that's exactly what you need here! Python code that solves the previous exercise is already included; can you make the appropriate changes to fix the data import?. melt, rename, etc. 0 6 1 Matthew yes 14. DataFrames can be constructed from a wide array of sources such as. 25 [Python-Pandas] DataFrame 의 특정 column 만 이름 변경하기 (0) 2018. A dataframe object is an object made up of a number of series objects. Previous: Python Pandas Data Series, DataFrame Exercises Home. The next step is to consolidate the the columns into one. Iterate Over columns in dataframe by index using iloc[] To iterate over the columns of a Dataframe by index we can iterate over a range i. The new column will be called 'Price' and it will contain the prices associated with the products. In the following example, we get the dataframe column names and print them. 2 it will be updated as February and so on. It's as simple as:. The equivalent to a pandas DataFrame in Arrow is a Table. How do I add a column to dataframe on condition that certain observations in my dataframe contain a target word in Python? How to add date column in python pandas. hist DataFrame method, which is a sub-method of pandas. To select the first two or N columns we can use the column index slice “gapminder. Exploring & transforming H2O Data Frame in R and Python Sometime you may need to ingest a dataset for building models and then your first task is to explore all the features and their type you have. A DataFrame is a distributed collection of data, which is organized into named columns. withColumn. That is, we want to subset the data frame based on values of year column. # select first two columns gapminder[gapminder. mstats import mode, gmean, hmean Simulate Data using Python and NumPy. Let's see how to. csv', header=None) >>>. Pandas DataFrame Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Pandas program to insert a new column in existing DataFrame. dropna() to drop NaN considering only columns A and C. One of the most commonly used pandas functions is read_excel. In the following example, we get the dataframe column names and print them. Python Pandas DataFrame is a heterogeneous two-dimensional object, that is, the data are of the same type within each column but it could be a different data type for each column and are implicitly or explicitly labelled with an index. It's as simple as:. DataFrame, pandas. Distributing Python Modules publishing modules for installation by others. So if a dataframe object has a certain index, you can replace this index with a completely new index. To delete or remove only one column from Pandas DataFrame, you can use either del keyword, pop() function or drop() function on the dataframe. Once that is done you may want to change the feature types to the one you want. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. So if a dataframe object has a certain index, you can replace this index with a completely new index. append() & loc[] , iloc[] Python Pandas : Count NaN or missing values in DataFrame ( also row & column wise) Python Pandas : Drop columns in DataFrame by label Names or by Index Positions. First, the similarities: Both an SFrame and a DataFrame are Python data structures for representing data sets. In simple words I have dataframe with geo coordinates -- latitude & longitude as two columns. Next: Write a Pandas program to get the information of the DataFrame (movies_metadata. Similar is the data frame in Python, which is labeled as two-dimensional data structures having different types of columns. to_string() uses one extra white space between columns for sign alignment. Exploring and Transforming H2O DataFrame in R and Python you might have to trim your DataFrame to fewer features in order to have an effective You don't have any columns in your data frame. How to Add Column to Pandas DataFrame? – 2 Python Examples. Maintain the datatype of each element (we don't want to convert everything to a str and then strip whitespace). select_dtypes(['object']) print (df_obj) 0 a 1 c df[df_obj. To begin, you'll need to create a DataFrame to capture the above values in Python. By default splitting is done on the basis of single space by str. If you've used R or even the pandas library with Python you are probably already familiar with the concept of DataFrames. I want to create columns but not replace them and these data frames are of high cardinality which means cat_1,cat_2 and cat_3 are not the only columns in the data frame. Tabular data has rows and columns, just like our csv file. It is the most commonly used pandas object. Arbitrary functions can be applied along the axes of a DataFrame or Panel using the apply() method, which, like the descriptive statistics methods, takes an optional axis argument. The appropriate method to use depends on whether your function expects to operate on an entire DataFrame, row- or column-wise, or element. If you’re using a Jupyter notebook, outputs from simply typing in the name of the data frame will result in nicely formatted outputs. python pandas 에서 특정 컬럼값의 row 를 제거하기 | Deleting DataFrame row in Pandas based on column value JASON 2017. , data is aligned in a tabular fashion in rows and columns. simple utility function for adding a level to columns in a dataframe (self. data as web. Could anyone give me some idea on how to calculate correlation of discrete data for two columns? Great thanks!. The characters length is more than 8 characters and I was keep only 8 characters starting from first which should include (-) and (. This lesson of the Python Tutorial for Data Analysis covers creating a pandas DataFrame and selecting rows and columns within that DataFrame. set_index() function. [code]import pandas as pd fruit = pd. First, take the log base 2 of your dataframe, apply is fine but you can pass a DataFrame to numpy functions. Learn 10 ways to filter pandas dataframe in Python. 166658 2 -0. to_string() Note: sometimes may be useful for debugging Working with the whole DataFrame Peek at the DataFrame contents df. DataFrames from Python Structures. The next step is to consolidate the the columns into one. I want to create columns but not replace them and these data frames are of high cardinality which means cat_1,cat_2 and cat_3 are not the only columns in the data frame. Pandas uses the Python module Matplotlib to create and render all plots, and each plotting method from pandas. Pandas Cheat Sheet for Data Science in Python A quick guide to the basics of the Python data analysis library Pandas, including code samples. Current information is correct but more content will probably be added in the future. Tabular data has rows and columns, just like our csv file. cov (self[, min_periods]) Compute pairwise covariance of columns, excluding NA/null values. Append Spark Dataframe with a new Column by UDF To change the schema of a data frame, we can operate on its RDD, then apply a new schema. SeriesとPython標準のリスト型listは相互に変換できる。ここでは以下の内容について説明する。リスト型listをpandas. You can access the column names of DataFrame using columns property. Hey guysin this python pandas tutorial I have talked about how you can iterate over the columns of pandas data frame. Likewise, you can pass engine='python' to evaluate an expression using Python itself as a backend. Let's see how can we Apply uppercase to a column in Pandas dataframe. Column A column expression in a DataFrame. How can I strip the whitespace from Pandas DataFrame headers? trim last column in pandas Dataframe. Remove duplicate rows from Pandas DataFrame where only some columns have the same value; How to get scalar value on a cell using conditional indexing from Pandas DataFrame; How to specify an index and column while creating DataFrame in Pandas? If value in row in DataFrame contains string create another column equal to string in Pandas. Next: Write a Pandas program to get the information of the DataFrame (movies_metadata. Below I implement a custom pandas. Different kind of inputs include dictionaries, lists, series, and even another DataFrame. fillna() (not needed if you use all columns instead of only a subset) Correct the data type from float to int with. Python has six built-in types of sequences, but the most common ones are lists and tuples, which we would. One way way is to use a dictionary. Country Company). [code]import pandas as pd fruit = pd. DataFrame A distributed collection of data grouped into named columns. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. After creating the data frame, we shall proceed to know how to select, add or delete an index or column from it. When it comes to data management in Python, you have to begin by creating a data frame. rename (column= { 0 : ‘time’}) # defining a new dataframe to store time for i in range (0,10866): df1. , data is aligned in a tabular fashion in rows and columns. Currently, my data frame looks like this: 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 654 31. Concatenate two columns of dataframe in pandas (two string columns) Concatenate integer (numeric) and string column of dataframe in pandas python; Let's first create the dataframe. Let's see how to iterate over all columns of dataframe from 0th index to last index i. Split Name column into two different columns. Within the csv file that holds the location info, there is a 3rd column with specific location names. In R, there are multiple ways to select or drop column. loc [rows_desired, ‘column_label_desired‘] You still use the column label (s) to identify which column (s) you are interested in. How can I strip the whitespace from Pandas DataFrame headers? trim last column in pandas Dataframe. The userMethod is the actual python method the user application implements and the returnType has to be one of the types defined in pyspark. Color Columns, Rows & Cells of Pandas Dataframe Posted on January 2, 2019 February 14, 2019 I always wanted to highlight the rows,cells and columns which contains some specific kind of data for my Data Analysis. By typing the values in Python itself to create the DataFrame; By importing the values from a file (such as an Excel file), and then creating the DataFrame in Python based on the values imported; Method 1: typing values in Python to create pandas DataFrame. First, the similarities: Both an SFrame and a DataFrame are Python data structures for representing data sets. melt, rename, etc. It explains how to filter dataframe by column value, position with multiple conditions. withColumn("Product", df. DataFrame (raw_data, columns =. Right now one column of the dataframe corresponds to a document nested within the original MongoDB document, now typed as a dictionary. SeriesとPython標準のリスト型listは相互に変換できる。ここでは以下の内容について説明する。リスト型listをpandas. Let's try with an example: Create a dataframe:. split() function. We can think of a Python Pandas DataFrame as a database table, in which we store heterogeneous data. This is a form of data selection. Alternatively, use {col: dtype, …}, where col is a column label and dtype is a numpy. The sort_values() function does not modify the actual DataFrame, but returns the sorted DataFrame. The syntax to assign new dataframe. To delete multiple columns from Pandas Dataframe, use drop() function on the dataframe. count (self[, axis, level, numeric_only]) Count non-NA cells for each column or row. It is easy to visualize and work with data when stored in dataFrame. Calculate cumulative product and cumulative sum of DataFrame Columns in Pandas ; How to Import CSV to pandas with specific Index? How to select multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame? How to add an extra row at end in a pandas DataFrame? How do I convert dates in a Pandas DataFrame to a DateTime data type?. How to make a matplotlib line chart - Sharp Sight - […] at least need to learn about data manipulation … you should learn about NumPy arrays and learn about Pandas…. Renaming columns in a data frame Problem. In this article, we will show how to retrieve a column or multiple columns from a pandas DataFrame object in Python. Selecting on a multi-axis by label. Posted on April 11, 2017 Data Analysis, H2O, Java, Machine Learning, Python, Python Renaming data frame column names in H2O (python) Sometimes you may need to change the all the column names or a specific column due to certain need, and you can do as below:. df_obj = df. Related Stack Overflow question. Current information is correct but more content will probably be added in the future. Each row was assigned an index of 0 to N-1, where N is the number of rows in the DataFrame. Is there any function in spark sql to do the same? Announcement! Career Guide 2019 is out now. In order to achieve these features Pandas introduces two data types to Python: the Series and DataFrame. Currently, my data frame looks like this: 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 654 31. Cleaning the values of a multitype data frame in python/pandas, I want to trim the strings. Let's see how to iterate over all columns of dataframe from 0th index to last index i. 5 or 'a', (note that 5 is interpreted as a label of the index, and never as an integer position along the index). I am currently doing it in two instructions : import pandas as pd df = pd. columns attributes of the DataFrame instance are placed in the query namespace by default, which allows you to treat both the. Maintain the datatype of each element (we don't want to convert everything to a str and then strip whitespace). In both, a row represents a record and a column represents a variable. You can rearrange a DataFrame object by declaring a list of columns and using it as a key. Allowed inputs are: A single label, e. Let's try with an example: Create a dataframe:. Atul Singh / in Analysis, Analytics, Cleanse, data, Data Mining, dataframe, Exploration, IPython, Jupyter, Python / Before implementing any algorithm on the given data, It is a best practice to explore it first so that you can get an idea about the data. The dataframe looks like. Method #1 : Using Series. Each row is a measurement of some instance while column is a vector which contains data for some specific attribute/variable. Drop a variable (column) Note: axis=1 denotes that we are referring to a column, not a row. The purpose for this is just to generate some random data for us to populate our custom column function with. Endnotes In this article, I have introduced you to some of the most common operations on DataFrame in Apache Spark. To create pandas DataFrame in Python, you can follow this generic template:.